Most of my sculptural work done mostly prior to 2000 fits into a tradition best labeled as post minimalist. These works vary in intent and materials but are often paying homage to Marcel Duchamp in subtle ways. There is a dialogue between materials and their function but, not seeking to be too clever, are usually done in some opposing logical fashion. Some examples of earlier work, use classical architecture as a departure point, but the structures and proportions are authored with a surrealist narrative.

The sculptures I made in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s had been informed by an examination of the work of Vladimir Tatlin. The ‘constructivist’ wood sculpture Ice 9, !979, pays tribute to both Caspar David Friedrich’s painting, The Sea of Ice, 1824, and a nod to Kurt Vonnegut, and concept of Ice 9, from his book 'Cat's Cradle'.